Last time I opened with basic **exponentiation** and raised it to the idea of complex exponents (which may, or may not, have been surprising to you). I also began exploring the ubiquitous ** exp** function, which enables the complex math needed to deal with such exponents.

The ** exp(x)** function, which is the same as

**, appears widely throughout physics. The complex version,**

*e*^{x}**, is especially common in wave-based physics (such as optics, sound, and quantum mechanics). It’s instrumental in the**

*exp*(*ix*)**Fourier transform**.

Which in turn is as instrumental to mathematicians and physicists as a hammer is to carpenters and pianos.